Gender Differences Report
Chapter 6 starts with a story of how the Sun King Atahualpa had many young, beautiful women that were his concubines and how he chose them at a really young age to ensure their virginity. The other men who were not noble were basically forced in to celibacy because Atahualpa had most of the women or married them to him noblemen. Also it went to say that if a man were to violate anyone of his women it would led to total destruction of the man who committed the act, his entire family and even his village.
Next the chapter goes to tell about the arguments that evolution brings forth. Those arguments are centered around Evolution being more about reproduction on the fittest rather then survival of the fittest. Stemming from that point of view there are two other arguments that are raised that include behavior being learned and NOT inherited, and the second being a contradiction about inherited behavior being inflexible but that human are clearly flexible. Basically the first argument is an exaggeration and the second is just plain false.
It then goes into another section that talks about the point of marriage and basically how our mating system is foolish. He describes our system being foolish because the name “monogamy” is only there because the democracy prescribes it, which means that if we were to relax the anti-polygamy law it would flourish. He gives examples about how powerful men have usually had more then one mate even though they only had one wife, and that our system is clearly plagued my adultery. Therefore calling our mating system a monogamous one is a joke because it is not at all.
Furthermore males are the dominant sex by far and are the seducers in our mating system. The reason for this is because they can mate with more females without the commitment and don’t have much to gain from these relationships. Females however have to carry the offspring and take care of them for a long period of time, where as the male does not need to stick around. Women are the more choosey sex and therefore select their mate with quality and the males sex is more worried about the number of females he impregnates.
A turn on this view is the introduction of phalaropes, where in this species the roles are reversed. The male here is seduced by the female and takes care of the offspring while the female go around looking for another mate. The females here also take the initiative or courting the males. He then relates this example to the essence of the Red Queens message which is that one or the other will be condemned to an unnatural fate. The way I think he is relating these tow ideas is that the male lives a life that is unnatural compared to the rest of the males in the world. They are the caregivers here and the ones who are dominated my the females which is “unnatural” to the male sex. So what is good for the females here, may not be all that great for the males.
Homosexuality is another issue covered that really caught my attention by the way he touched on their promiscuity. His main idea here is that homosexual men are behaving like men, only more so, and that homosexual women are acting like women, only more so. So basically he is saying that straight men would do exactly what homosexual men did if women would be interested in the acts that gay men performed.
There is large debate as to why different animals have different mating systems. In other words, why do some animals “choose” polygamy instead of monogamy, or vice versa? Many theories have been put forth to answer this question. One factor that may influence animal mating systems is the game theory or dependence on the actions of others. In the polygyny threshold model, if the advantages of a bigamist with good territory or genes exceeds that of a monogamist with his faithfulness and parental care, polygamy will result. Polygyny, however, can actually benefit females more than males. Because some males will have an abundance of wives, the majority of other men must be celibate. Women, on the other hand, who wish to pursue careers will find other women to help in the responsibilities. The mating system theory gives answers as to why polygamy or monogamy is chosen. First, if choosing faithful males is better, there will be monogamy. Secondly, if mated males can coerce the women to have them, polygamy will happen. Third, if women can’t do worse in choosing an already mated male, there will be polygamy. Finally, if the already-mated females can prevent other females from latching on to her mate, monogamy will happen. A second factor that may influence mating systems is ecology or socioecology. Antelopes, for example, have very different mating systems according the habitat in which they live. Small forest antelopes are monogamous, whereas open woodland and big plain antelopes are polygamous. The same holds true for chimpanzees. The problem with this theory is that some species share the same ecology but have different mating systems. The black grouse and the red grouse are examples. The answer lies in their ancestry or history. Black grouse are descended from forest dwellers, while red grouse are not.
Human mating systems can also be explained through history. As man moved into grasslands and woodland savannas, a generally unchanging environment, they hunted animals, gathered fruits and seeds, were social in tribes, and were hostile to others. Characteristics of these early people are still evident in today’s societies. This contributes to the ideas of the environment of evolutionary adaptedness or EEA. Others believe that people are constantly adaptive and therefore have man potential mating systems. When men were hunters they were monogamous because hunting is more luck than skill. Even the best hunters could come back empty handed. The food could spoil easily, so if he had extra, sharing could only be beneficial. There was not yet the concept of wealth. When man discovered agriculture, however, the wealth and power structure was born. Farming leads to hoarding and therefore, men that had accumulated a lot of food were also the most rich and powerful. As some men became more powerful, one man could support several women and be polygamous.
Power seeking is an important characteristic of social animals. Power tends to lead to reproductive success. It also can be multiplied using alliances. Alliances can happen between brothers, ensuring gene success, or through reciprocity in which one animal helps another in order to be helped later in return. The evolution of power has gone from brute strength, to a combination of strength and cunning, and finally to man in which cunning alone can be a step into power. Humans are different than most animals, however, because great power in society does not always lead to reproductive success.
Anthropologist Mildred Dickemann from
John Hartung of
In the mid 1980’s Laura Betzig researched six different civilizations that were known to have very polygamous leaders. These six early societies included
During the time of Medieval Christendom, polygamy still went on, but it was very secretive. Many women had jobs in monasteries and castles that their tasks included sleeping with the men of these places. Many noblemen had women to copulate with because they had power, but most peasant men did not marry before they were forty and they rarely had a chance to fornicate.
It was very obvious that many problems were caused because of the sharing and collecting of women. Violence broke out many times in many societies because of men wanting more women or men stealing women. Sex is the principal cause for mayhem and murder even today. In Christianity, sex was never considered a sin until it was seen to cause trouble. That is why it was a sin because polygamous relationships cause chaos of jealousy and fighting. The monogamous Germanic tribes that frustrated the polygamous Romans so much were able to agree with each other and direct their aggression towards to fighting others.
Many historians believe that monogamous relationships are the core of the family now because when monogamous men could vote against polygamists, the polygamists had no chance to rule. Today, we see politicians trying to keep the cleanest reputation they can so that monogamous people will vote for them. Today, fornication is a very bid compromise for men and women. Women have just as much say in it as men do (if not more).
The Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People
By: David P. Barash, Ph.D.
Judith Eve Lipton, M.D.
An anthropologist by the name of Margaret Mead defines monogamy as the hardest and rarest of all human marital arrangements. There is powerful scientific evidence supporting monogamy as being not “natural.” Humans can be, maybe should be, but it is unusual and difficult. Does monogamy equal morality? Religious and moral issues teach that nonmonogamy is wrong but it is this inner restlessness that supports that it is against nature. Literature has also had reflections on monogamy and infidelity like The Iliad and Lady Chatterley’s Lover. There is always the struggle to want to remain monogamous, although it is very difficult. Amongst all mammals, monogamy is nonexistent and males do not care for the young. In the 1930’s E.F. Knipling conducted a study on screw-worm flies in agriculture. He believed that sterilizing the males would lead to lower reproduction, but reproduction still occurred, which led him to conclude that multiple mating is practiced in order to procreate. Geoffrey A. Parker, a British behavioral ecologist stated the idea of sperm competition, which is another way of saying nonmonogamy. Charles Darwin was actually the first to bring up this idea with a domestic goose mating with a Chinese goose, even though it was another species. However,
Gender Differences Report
- Keep many virgin women to himself (concubines)
- Other Indian men were basically Celibacy
- If they violated Atahualpa women then they would be killed along with their entire family, their animals, their servants and
villagers along with the entire village destroyed and then stoned.
- He and his noblemen had a majority holding in the paternity of next
- Most of the women he kept for himself, the rest married to favored
- Those who thought humans were unique advanced into 2 arguments
1. In humans everything about behavior is learned, not inherited.
2. Inherited behavior is inflexible behavior and humans are
clearly flexible (false)
- Inherited tendencies permeate everything we do and are
- This is seen when viewing the fifth method that compares humans to animals that share our highly social habitats.
what human nature seeks. (relaxing the anti-polygamy laws and it flourishes)
- Powerful men usually have more then one mate, even though they only
- Human shouldn't have mating system (foolish) because they do what they want.
- Adapt their behavior to the prevailing opportunity
would be faithful.
- Men are expected to ask for females hand in marriage, males bow on one
knee or are the first to bring it up in conversation. . . therefore pounce.
creating an offspring and least likely to gain from each mating.
copulate, whereas women can only bear the child of one man only at a time.
- Meaning: what is good for one person may not be good for another.
- Study showed 75% had 100+ partners, 25% had 1000+ partners (Kinsey
Institute study of Gay Men)
behave like women, but only more so.
- polygyny threshold model – a choice
- bigamist with territory or good genes
- monogamist with parental care
- mating system theory – a female’s choice
- choosing faithful males are better – monogamy
- mated males coerce females to mate – polygamy
- mated males are no worse than non-mated males – polygamy
- mated females prevent their male to mate again – monogamy
- Females live according to food and safety, not sex
- Proven animal studies
- Same ecology, different mating systems – ancestry
- Black grouse and red grouse
- have same habitat, enemies, and food, but different mating system
- black grouse are descended from forest dwellers
- grasslands and woodland savannas (generally unchanging)
- behavioral patterns still characteristic today
- combination of time and place
- luck not skill (no hoarding)
- hoarding – accumulated wealth – power
- brothers: ensure gene success
- reciprocity : “you help me, I help you”
- strength (simple animals)
- strength and cunning
- cunning (humans)
Highly Sexed Emperors
- Wet nursing
- Fertility monitoring
- Claustration of the concubines
- She would be the queen
- She would raise the legitimate children
- Those children would be future rulers
- In Medieval times, monasteries and castles had harems of “employed” women for fornication
- Polygamy was still practiced, but much more secretive.
- Sexual competition led to murder and mayhem
- Monogamous societies like Germanic tribes had less internal problems than Polygamous societies like
- Polygamous societies fought over women
- Made sex a sin if not from monogamous relationship
- Noticed that sin caused trouble
- Sex itself was never problem or sinful
- Iliad by Homer started with abduction of Helen
- In pre-agricultural societies, captives of war were more women than men.
- Shore leave of Navy has primary purpose of access to prostitutes
- Rape and war always have high correlation with each other
- Men found out that one faithful wife was better bet than going our killing for women
- Monogamy causes less chaos
- Not Christianity
- Not Women’s Rights
- Monogamists outvoted polygamists
- Monogamy became core of family during Industrial Age
- Polygamists have not survived in politics and power