Male homosexual were far more promiscuous than heterosexual males before the outbreak of AIDS. A study that was conducted in the
Harems and Wealth
The game theory which is a technique used in economics, is used in studying different mating systems. Game theory identifies that the outcome of an operation depends on what other people are doing. From this technique the question of why different animals have such different mating systems was answered. But we are going to focus on how this plays out in humans. Both monogamy and polygamy can be seen in humans. Here is an excerpt of how each one of these could work,
“We became monogamous because the advantage that a junior father could supply in feeding the family outweighed the disadvantage in not being mated to the chief. Or we became polygamous because of the discrepancies in wealth between males, “ Which woman would not rather be John Kennedy’s third wife than Bozo the Clown’s first?” said one (female) evolutionist.” (p 185)
Do the first wives usually object to having to share their husband with other women? In some situations they do. The husband either has to force her to accept the arrangement or he must bribe her to accept it. “In parts of
There are four basic commandments of the mating system theory. First, by choosing monogamy, females do better and faithful males are the result. Second, the first will not happen if men can persuade them. Third, by choosing already mated males the females can do no worse. Fourth, unless the already mated females can prevent their males from getting another partner, monogamy will be the result. But to be realistic almost all mammals fall far above the polygamy threshold, which makes these four commandments irrelevant.
Why Play Sexual Monopoly?
Zoologists in the 1970s coined the tern “socioecology” while investigating different species’ mating systems. In two studies, one on antelope and one on primates, concludes that the mating system would be predicted from its ecology. For example, “Small forest antelopes are selective feeders and as a consequence, are solitary and monogamous. Middle-sized, open-woodland ones live in small groups and form harems.” (p186)
Another factor of how different species mate is their history. A species could have the same ecology and produce two different mating systems. The answer that most biologists come up with is that they have different histories.
Hunters and Gatherers
For humans when we are looking at our mating systems the best place to look is our natural habitat and our past. An example of this is that in any modern human today the brain designated for hunting and gathering resides.
Don Symons coined the term “environment of evolutionary adaptedness” (EEA). This refers to humans that lived millions of years ago. They hunted food, gathered berries, and very friendly with people in their tribe but not with other tribes. The combination of the time and place is why Symons used that phrase. The book goes on the explain that, “People cannot be adapted to the present or the future; they can only be adapted to the past.” (p191) Others disagree with this saying that there was no consistent EEA. One argument against the EEA is that one of its main parts is still with us today, the other people. What socioecology says is that our mating system is determined by other people not our ecology. The second argument against the EEA was that humans were designed to be adaptable. Mankind has developed many different mating systems, with one for every kind of circumstance.
Money and Sex
While reading this section on money and sex, the author stated that men will forever be obsessed with the idea of gaining power. There is something about men that makes them want to take advantage of all opportunities for polygamy. During the Pleistocene period, not many men had the opportunity for polygamy. In hunting and gathering societies, polygamy was present, but it was based on luck, and how much success that you had within your society. In our society today, most men are monogamous, many are promiscuous and adulterous, but few men manage to be polygamous.
In hunting and gathering societies, men shared their food. This worked out well because no matter how lucky someone was, his neighbor might be luckier while he was hunting that day. Therefore, everyone was considered equal. There was no fight for power because everyone had to rely on other people. Agriculture ended this equity and allowed men to be polygamous. Farming allowed people to gather more grain and domestic animals, which was a form of wealth, and decreased the necessity of sharing with one another because no one needed favors in return. The best farmer became the richest man and as a result he could acquire more wives. This led to the accumulation of wealth, which began to equal power, and in some societies, the richest or most powerful man could have over 100 wives. Wealthy men were able to gain this power because often times, other men would help them on a “you help me, I’ll help you” basis. Strength was no longer necessary to win power, instead “wealth, cunning, and political skill led to power among men” (p196) because it led to the ability to form alliances.
Highly Sexed Emperors
In late 1970, an anthropologist named Mildred Dickemann did a series of investigations to find out if the predictions that evolutionists were making for animals were also true for human beings. What she found was that people in Oriental societies saw reproduction as their purpose for existence, persuading women to attempt to marry into the highest status, and men to have as many wives as possible. One example is in
At about the same time, a man named John Hartung hypothesized that a rich man in a polygamous society would be more likely to make his son the heir to all of his power and riches over any daughters that he may have. This is because a man has more reproductive potential in polygamous societies than women do. If their son becomes rich and powerful, he can have many wives, but a daughter on the other hand can only have one husband. Even if a daughter were to have more than one husband she would not be able to increase her reproductive potential. This means that polygamous societies almost always have male-biased inheritance.
In the mid 1980’s Laura Betzig wanted to investigate the idea that people are sexually adapted to take advantage of whatever situation they come across. This means that men would use their power and riches to gain sexual power. In other words, the more wealth and power that a man has, the better his reproductive success will be. In Western societies today, this is definitely not always true, but in other societies in the past, her hypothesis was proven again and again.
Polygamy was evident in all of the early civilizations, including
When Betzig looked at Medieval Christianity, she found out that although on the surface their society seemed to be monogamous, polygamy continued to secretly thrive. The new harem consisted of all of the women who worked in the castles whose size was dependent on wealth.
The Rewards of Violence
Sexual rewards often caused violence within societies. This is where the Christian ideals about sex came about. The church noticed that sex lead to violence, and as a result sex was seen as sinful. One example is what happened on the
No body really knows why, but polygamy has become almost inexistent in Western societies today. Over the past few centuries it has died out, and there is no logical explanation why. It seems like we have gone in a huge circle. Our civilization is more like the Pleistocene period where men had one or two faithful wives and a few affairs. Today a man can hope for one good wife who is traded in every once and a while, and a good-looking mistress. But throughout all of time there has always been monogamous core. Even the most powerful people usually had one Queen and many women on the side.
Barash, David P. and Judith Eve Lipton. Making Sense of Sex. “Brain”. 1997.
Our brains are the most important part of being human. While the brain is a major influence in sex, sex is also a huge influence on the brain and likewise operates differently in males and females.
How Genes and Hormones Influence Sex
There is little difference between males and females -- only the Y chromosome dictates the sex of an embryo. "Hormones are the enforcers of gender (174)." All one needs to become a normal male or female is a hormonal pull in one direction. The testes produce testosterone for males, while the ovaries and the hypothalamus produce female hormones.
As the Brain Goes, So Goes Behavior
The same hormones that determine gender also influence the growth and patterns of an embryos brain. The body, brain, and behavior are all linked. The process of differentiation is determined by two periods for secretion of sex hormones: "the first phase, when the embryo is first bathed in hormones, is followed by a second phase, which occurs at puberty (176)." These phases act on the human brain by exposing and then developing photographic film.
The Power of Male Hormones
Male hormones produce a male brain. Spotted hyenas are talked about in the context that even female hyenas act and even have many male characteristics. They have a fully developed penis and scrotum. This is an example of prenatal masculinization. "Male hormones determine both anatomical and behavioral sex differences...(177)."
When the Dose is Wrong
Here we focus on defects in hormones and how individuals are affected. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is where, in a mild case, a baby girl is born with external genitals that look male. She is still genetically XX though. They act as tomboys in many cases. In more extreme cases, the child is reared as a normal boy, but later on will need help from a doctor, since the ""boy" is not developing into a man (180)." Despite this hormonal defect, one should take into account, before jumping to conclusions, that in many children some degree of tomboyishness is perfectly normal.
There are several known sexual disorders, which explain how brains and bodies don’t always match up. In the 1950s and 1960s physicians found that women with low levels of the female hormone progesterone were not able to carry their babies to term. So they were administered DES which is a form of progesterone and it increased the women’s chances of carry out the pregnancy to full term. But what the physicians did not know was the side effects DES would have. Girls who had been exposed to DES in the womb turned out to be tomboys, were infertile and were more likely to suffer from vaginal cancer. Boys on the other hand avoided the rough and tumble that other boys enjoy and were seen to be less assertive. The DES that was in their systems reduced the normal relationship between testosterone and the central nervous system.
Another syndrome is androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). “This disorder arises when male embryos have a biochemical anomaly that renders them insensitive to male sex hormones” (p181). The body is secreting the normal amounts of androgens but the body is not responding to them. The male who is genetically XY develops to look like a female on the outside, but testes remain on the inside. The only physical difference is that the females may be slightly taller than other females. They are also said to be more feminine that most females. Most are so feminine that they choose to have the testes removed and have a vagina constructed.
Another condition is 5-alpha-reductase deficiency syndrome (5ARDS). This disorder is where a person is genetically male but on the outside is entirely female. The only difference between 5ARDS and AIS is that when the person hits puberty their testes appear and their bodies becomes definitely male.
When Chromosomes Get Mixed Up
One syndrome known as Turner’s syndrome is where a female embryo inherits only one chromosome (XO). These women are overly feminine but don’t have ovaries or other female reproductive organs. Babies who experience Turner’s syndrome experience hyper-feminization of the brain. This leads them to be overly obsessed with dolls, hate aggressive play and have a strong desire for marriage and to be a mother.
Another chromosome error is what is called supermales. This is where an individual has an extra Y chromosome, which makes their genetic makeup be XYY. These men appear to be taller than average men, have lower IQs and are well represented in prisons.
A third chromosome difference is Klinefelter’s syndrome. This is where women inherit a Y chromosome (XXY). This makes them look male but they develop breasts at puberty, which leads them to problems with their sexual identity. Treatment for this syndrome is to administer testosterone, but the right amount must be given or the child can become irritable or aggressive.
When Men and Women Think Differently
There are certain sex differences that keep reappearing. For example males do constantly better than females on tests of spatial and mathematical ability. Girls on the other hand do better in verbal ability and responsiveness to stimuli. These are mostly just generalizations but it is true that girls and boys display different abilities.
Camilla Benbow and Julian Stanley conducted a study in which they looked at SAT math scores for both males and females. The results were that boys do better than girls. They received lots of criticism on this so they conducted the study again but this time with bigger numbers, and still got the same results. It turns out that the average math scores are not all the different. In actuality boys are just at the upper end of the curve but also at the lower extremes. But girls are consistent and are average.
The World of Achievers
Though women have higher verbal ability and responsiveness than men, throughout history, there have been many more males recognized for their talents and achievements. If women were not so preoccupied by the duties of motherhood, these may be able to direct more time towards the utilization of their talents. Yet if this were to happen, women would probably be looked upon as neglecting their families and home life. Motherhood may be the cause of sensitivity in women. They have to care for, and understand their infants without actually having to talk to them. Differences in the brains of males and females may explain why men are more recognized for their achievements than women.
Women are more intuitive and less cognitive than men. They are much more sensitive. This may explain why men have more success. Men are more aggressive and care less about what is going on around them. Both characteristics are those that are seen in people who are dominant leaders. One example is how “office employees fret over a casual remark made by the boss” (p190).
Why Men Read Maps and Women ask for Directions
Women are very focused on individual’s feelings and relationships. They have high verbal and auditory skills. Men have more spatial skills. “Their greater aptitude for spatial relationships makes men more adroit at reading maps and perhaps at mathematical functions…” … “Women rely on landmarks for finding their way…” (p191). Estrogen equals verbal ability, and testosterone equals spatial ability. In a man or a woman, the presence of either increases the corresponding ability.
On the surface, a man’s brain may appear bigger than a woman’s. But in reality, it is all relative to their differences in body size. The “female brain is not just a scaled down version of a man’s brain” (p193). Women’s neurons are actually more densely organized than a man’s. This could be important because neurons are what controls intellectual functioning. In rats, the SDN (sexually dimorphic nucleus) of males is much bigger than the SDN of females. In humans the INAH-3 is supposedly equal to the SND of rats. When the brains of homosexual males were looked at, they found the INAH-3 to be about the same size as a female’s INAH-3. They are still unsure of what exactly the INAH-3 does, but they do know that it is twice as big in a male’s brain than a female’s brain. Among women, a homosexual male, a heterosexual male, and transsexuals there are big size differences in another part of the brain called the “central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminals” (195).
Using Our Heads
Males are more “left brained” and females are more “right brained” (195). The right side of the brain deals with visual and spatial functions, and the left side deals with verbal functions. This may explain why men are not as verbal as women. They are just not capable of having the same amount of intuition and verbal ability as a female. Females also utilize more than just the right side of their brains. Studies have shown that females use all different parts of their brain at once. That is probably why they recover more quickly than men when it comes to head trauma. Men are more likely to lose their verbal ability when they severely injure their brain. Women’s brains are just “more specialized, especially in regards to language” (p196). The difference between men and women’s brains shows that the brain can work in two different yet both very successful ways.
The difference between a man a woman’s brain is largely due to the fact that woman are wired to be mothers. Whether they actually become mothers or not, they are biologically predisposed to be a certain way. Men are biologically predisposed to be aggressive and more sexual than women. Whether or not they have a chance to act upon these instincts, they still have it wired in their brains somewhere. These instincts do not always match up according to your sex. The environment which a man or woman grows up in can reverse the aggressiveness or passiveness that they are predisposed to.
A. The Inca
1. Sex was a regulated industry
a. Atahualpa, the sun king, kept 1500 women in his "house of virgins" in
b. women selected for their beauty and had to be around 8 years old, to
ensure their virginity.
c. if a man violated one of Atahualpa’s women, he would be put to
d. the village would be destroyed, etc.
1. thousands of women were kept in the king’s harem for his use.
C. The connection between sex and power is a long one.
II. Mankind, An Animal
A. Evolution is more about reproduction of the fittest than survival of the fittest.
1. all creatures are a product of historical battles between genes and other genes,
between members of the same species, etc.
a. battles are psychological
b. never one, for success in one generation ensures that the foes of the
next generation are fitter and fight harder.
B. We are not taught things such as anger or lust
1. human nature
2. no nature that exists without nurture
a. every behavior is the product of an instinct trained by an experience.
C. some scientists think that evolution has nothing to tell them.
1. human bodies are products of natural selection, while human minds are
behavior are products of culture.
a. human culture does not reflect human nature, but the reverse.
III. The Point Of Marriage
A. For a man, women are vehicles that can carry his genes into the next generation,
while for a woman men are sources of sperm that can turn eggs into embryos.
1. one can exploit the other gender by rounding up many of them and persuade
them to mate with you, then deserting them.
a. or one can find one person and share parenthood duties equally.
B. 5 ways to find out where humanity falls
1. study modern people directly and describe the mating system.
a. answer is usually monogamous marriage.
2. look at human history from the past and see what sexual arrangements are
typical of our species.
3. look at people in simple, stone age technologies and see why they lived like
our ancestors lived long age.
4. look at the apes and compare our behavior and anatomy with them.
5. compare human with other animals that share similar social habits
a. teaches we are designed for a system of monogamy plagued by
C. Only one polyandrous society on Earth
in order to put together a family unit that is economically good in a harsh
land, where men herd yaks to support women.
D. Democracy tells us to live in monogamous societies, human do not seek this
1. 3/4 of tribal cultures are polygamous
2. even in polygamous societies, men usually have only one wife, and women
have one husband.
3. humans, overall, do what they want, and adapt their behavior to the present
IV. When Males Pounce And Females Flirt
A. If males and females had their way
1. males -- women would live in harems like seals
2. women -- men would be as faithful as an albatrosses
3. males are seducers and females are the seduced.
B. in no society on earth do marriage proposals usually come from the woman
1. woman may flirt, but men will pounce.
C. Women flirt and men pounce because of conditioning, according to sociologists.
1. biologists explain why male animals are more ardent suitors than females
and why they are an exception to the rule.
a. the gender that invests the most in taking care of the offspring, is the
gender that has the least to gain from extra mating.
b. a peacock rants a peahen one batch of sperm and nothing else. He
won’t protect and feed her, or bring up the chicks. She does all the
c. unequal bargain
d. males like quantity, while females like quality.
D. Asymmetry between genders is relevant to the difference in the size of sperm
1. the most prolific males are far more successful than the least prolific males,
while in females it doesn’t matter.
2. males are more likely to have lots of children, than women
a. men who marry twice are more likely to bear 2 children by 2 wives,
while women who marry twice aren’t as likely to bear children by both
E. Infidelity and prostitution are unique cases in polygamy in which no marriage
bond is formed.
V. Feminism and Phalaropes
A. exceptions to polygamy
1. seahorse females have a sort of penis that she uses to inject eggs into the
2. Phalaropes and other seducer-female species
a. males invest more time or energy in the care of the young, while
females take initiative in courtship.
B. asymmetry is clear in humans
1. "nine months of pregnancy set against 5 minutes of fun"
2. polygamous human society is a victory for men, where a monogamous one
is a victory for females.
C. Nature vs. nurture
1. murder is "natural", in the sense that ape’s commit it regularly
2. hate, violence, etc are less part of human nature, and can be countered by
the right kind of nurture.
3. evolution does not lead to a utopia.
a. leads to a land where what is best for one man, may not be best for
VI. The meaning of homosexual promiscuity
A. Homosexual males are far more promiscuous than heterosexual males
1. 75% more than 100 partners
2. 25% more than 1,000 partners
B. Society’s disapproval
1. bigger problem among homosexual males
2. lesbians total contradiction to this
a. fewer than 10 partners
VII. Harems and Wealth
A. Game Theory
1. technique taken from economics
2. outcome depends on what others are doing
3. answered why there are different mating systems
4. quote p185
B. Four basic commandments of the mating system theory
1. monogamy- females do better and men are more faithful
2. first one can not happen if men persuade women
3. by choosing already mated males, females can do no worse
4. already mated females persuade males from getting another partner =
VIII. Why play sexual monopoly?
A. term socioecology
1. 2 studies- one on antelope and one on primates
2. concluded mating system would be predicted by ecology
B. Mating system from history
1. same ecology = 2 diff mating systems
2. answer= their histories
IX. Hunters and Gatherers
A. natural habitat and past
1. every human today has a brain of a hunter and gatherer
B. “environment of evolutionary adaptedness” (EEA)
1. humans that lived millions of years ago
a. friendly with people of their own tribe but no with other tribes
2. combo of time and place
C. Many disagree with EEA
1. no consistent EEA
2. main part of theory, other people, are still here today
3. socioecology says mating system determined by other people not our
4. humans designed to be adaptable
X. Money and Sex
A. Men are obsessed with the idea of gaining power
1. This makes them want to take advantage of polygamy
2. In hunting and gathering societies, polygamy was present, but it was based on luck, and how much success you had within your society…there was no fight for power…men shared everything
3. Today most men are monogamous, many are promiscuous, but few manage to be polygamous
a. Increased wealth
b. Led to the wealthiest (most powerful) man to have the most wives
XI. Highly Sexed Emperors
A. Oriental societies saw reproduction as their purpose for existence, persuading women
to attempt to marry into the highest status, and men to have as many wives as
1. Male power and resources are traded for a woman’s reproductive success
B. A rich man in a polygamous society is most likely to make his son (instead of daughter) heir to the wealth
1. Males have more reproductive potential than women in polygamous societies
C. Men use their power and riches to gain sexual power
1. The more wealth and power a man has, the better his reproductive success
D. In all of the early civilizations, Emperors had harems with large numbers of women living within them
1. The women were used solely for breeding purposes
2. Emperors were told when and where they could breed with the women
3. Emperors were only interested in having a lot of children, they didn’t care about the sex
E. In Rome Emperors had both monogamous and polygamous relationships
1. They had a wife, but they could also deflower any other women they wanted
2. Emperors had many women slaves who were required to remain celibate…the emperor could copulate with them at any time
XII. The Rewards of Violence
A. Sexual rewards often caused violence within societies
1. Christian ideals about sex came from this
a. Sex is a sin
XIII. Monogamous Democrats
A. Polygamy has become almost inexistent in Western Societies today
1. We have gone in a huge circle, and there is no logical explanation why
I. Introduction: The Brain
A. Brain = most important part of being human
1. influences sex and, in turn, is influenced by sex
II. How Genes and Hormones Influence Sex
A. Little difference between males and females
1. only Y chromosome dictates the sex of the embryo
B. Hormones are the enforcers of gender
1. testosterone, for males, is produced by the testes
2. female hormones are produced by the ovaries and the hypothalamus.
III. As the Brain Goes, So Goes Behavior
A. Some hormones that determine gender also influences the growth patterns of an
1. body, brain, and behavior are linked
B. Process of differentiation is determined by 2 periods of secretion of sex hormones.
1. embryo is bathed in hormones
2. occurs during puberty
a. these phases expose then develop photographic film.
IV. The Power of Male Hormones
A. Male hormones produce a male brain
1. Spotted hyenas
a. Females even have male characteristics -- fully developed penis and
b. Prenatal masculinization.
c. Male hormones determine both anatomical and behavioral sex differences.
V. When the Dose is Wrong
A. Defects in hormones
1. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
a. in mild cases a baby girl is born with external genitals that look male.
b. Genetically XX.
c. Act as tomboys.
d. In more extreme cases, the child is reared as a normal boy, but later on in
puberty need help from a doctor, since the "boy" is not developing into a
2. Despite the hormonal defect, one should take into account that for many children,
some degree of tomboyishness is normal.
A. Can’t carry babies to term
1. Females have no levels of progesterone
a. Administered DES
b. Increased chance to carry baby to full term
2. Side effects
a. Girls became tomboys, infertile, vaginal cancer
b. Boys avoided rough play and were less assertive
B. AIS (androgen insensitivity syndrome)
1. Males insensitive to male sex hormones
2. Body secretes right amount of androgens but body does not respond to them
3. Male develops looking like a female.
4. More feminine than most females
C. 5 ARDS (5-alpha-reductase deficiency syndrome)
1. Genetically male but outside totally female
2. Person hits puberty testes appear
3. Bodies become male
VII. When chromosomes get mixed up
A. Turner’s syndrome
2. Overly feminine with no ovaries or other reproductive organs
3. Babies experience hyper-feminization
4. Overly obsessed with dolls, hate aggressive play, strong desire for marriage and
1. Extra y- XXY
3. Lower IQs
4. Lots in prison
C. Klinefelter’s syndrome
1. Women inherit Y chromosome (XXY)
2. Look male but develop breasts at puberty
3. Leads to sexual identity problems
4. Administer testosterone
5. Can lead to irritability or aggression
VIII. When men and women think differently
A. Males do better on spatial and mathematical abilities
B. Girls do better in verbal ability and responsiveness to stimuli
IX. Test Scores
A. Camilla Benbow and Julian Stanley study
B. Looked at SAT math scores for males and females
C. Lots of criticism so they had to do it again
D. Same results both times---males are better at math
E. Turns out average scores are the same…males are at upper end and lower extremes
F. Girls are average
X. The World of Achievers
A. Women are superior to men in verbal ability and responsiveness to stimuli
1. They have not been recognized for their achievement as much as men
2. Women haven’t been given the same opportunities as males
a. More male artists, authors, composers, roles models, etc.
b. Motherhood is one explanation
c. Another explanation males are usually pushy/ aggressive which leads to
d. Males are more competitive
3. Females are more cognitive and intuitive than males
a. Women are more sensitive
b. Men are more oblivious to what’s going on
XI. Why Men Read Maps and Women Ask for Directions
A. Men score higher on tests involving spatial skills, and women score higher on verbal
and auditory capabilities
1. Men are more likely to read and navigate by using maps = spatial skills
2. Women are more likely to use landmarks and ask for directions
B. Testosterone influences spatial ability, and Estrogen influences verbal ability,
memory, and manual dexterity
XII. Inside the Brain
A. Man’s brain is bigger than a female’s brain
1. All relative to body size
B. “Woman’s brain is not just a scaled down version of a man’s brain”
1. Same # of neurons, just more densely organized in women
a. Neurons control intellectual functioning
2. The brains differ when it comes to reproductive success
a. Ex: the part of the brain that controls signaling in songbirds is much larger
in males than in females
C. Sexually dimorphic nucleus
1. Twice as big in male rats than female rats
a. Ex: add testosterone to female rats equals male copulatory behavior, and
visa versa for male rats
1. Equivalent of sexually dimorphic nucleus in humans
2. Twice as big in males than females
a. In homosexual males it looked like that of a female
3. Still unsure of function
E. “Central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis”
1. Huge differences in size of this region between men and women
a. Heterosexual and Homosexual Men = avg. 2.6 cubic millimeters
b. Females = avg. 1.73 cubic millimeters
c. Transsexuals = avg. 1.3 cubic millimeters
XIII. Using Our Heads
A. Males and females use their brains differently
1. Males are “left brained”, females are “right brained”
a. Left brain controls verbal tasks
b. Right brain controls visualizing or manipulating objects
2. Women’s brains are more specialized/less limited and Men’s brains are limited to
one task or another
a. Women have more neurons available to connect words with feelings
b. Women recover more quickly from injury to the brain
c. There are two different ways for the human brain to arrive at the same
d. Men have better mathematical skills
e. The male brain is less predisposed than the female brain to verbal
communication…they may just be “without words for feeling”
A. Biological Predispositions
1. Females predisposed to motherhood
a. Even if they do not become mothers, their brains still think in a nurturing,
2. Male brains predisposed to aggressiveness and sexual avidity
3. Environmental factors can affect these predispositions
a. The environment in which someone lives in can affect their brain
b. Men can be sensitive, and women can be aggressive
· 75% of homosexual males in San Fran had more than 100 sexual partners while 25% had more than 1, 000.
· The Sun King of the Incas kept 1,500 women in his “House of Virgins” but they did not remain virgins for long.
· The “Circle of Life”-- humans have gone in a huge circle from monogamy to polygamy back to monogamy and there is no logical explanation.
· What did the game theory actually prove?
· There was an inconsistent argument about the “environment of evolutionary adaptedness”.
· The author failed to relate many of the animal examples to the human species.
· What exactly is socioecology?
· Why doesn’t anybody really know why we went in a huge circle from monogamy to polygamy and then back to monogamy in Western societies today?
· Why are there so few species in which the mating roles are reversed?
· Males may really be “without words for feeling”.
· The difference or lack of differences between male and female spotted hyenas (male hormones).
· Females are predisposed to motherhood. While male brains are predisposed to aggressiveness and sexual avidity.
· Is there any explanation for “normal” levels of “tomboyishness” for girls and “sissyness” amongst boys?
· Significance of women having more densely organized neurons?
· Inconsistencies in test scores amongst boys and girls.
· “Central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis”
· What are the chances of having a child with one of these hormonal or chromosomal syndromes?