††††††††††† Danielle Worrill daniw822@aol.com

††††††††††† Jessica Lyon LYONLION@hotmail.com

††††††††††† Vanessa Koman@lion.lmu.edu



A Mind of her own

The evolutionary psychology of women

Anne Campbell

Chapter #4 Review: Who does she think she is? Women and status


†††††††††† A.Dominance as a male goal

1.Purpose of male status competition is reproductive access

a.       Animals:Physical strength=dominance

b.      Humans:Wealth, powerful position, knowledge and skill=dominance

2.Positive correlation between high status male and reproductive success

a.       Historically, wealth + power = polygamyallowed by surplus of resources to support and protect many females

3.In egalitarian cultures, better hunters shared wealth

a.       Tolerated theft=share rather than let spoil or waste energy fighting for food

b.      Cooperative acquisition=maintain cooperative bonds for the future

c.       Dominance and reproductive success=make himself indispensable to the group

1.      Others will be willing to trade things for loyalty

2.      More extramarital lovers

3.      More illegitimate children

4.      Children have a higher chance of survival

4.Recent trends show decreased association between status and number of children produced

a.       Study showed that monogamy and contraception had a diminishing effect on correlation

1.      Married vs. single males

2.      Number of partners and number of individual copulations

B.Why female dominance buys

1.Advantage of dominance for the survival of existing young in whom the mother has already invested

a.       Consistent and plentiful food supply

1.      Faster growth so juveniles reach puberty earlier

2.      Sustains gestation and lactation

3.      Fat storage allows females to survive famine

b.      Little to no harassment

c.       Less likely to experience stress-induced reproductive suppression

d.      More likely to have allies

e.       If heritable, offspring will also benefit

2.Studies of female dominance and reproductive success are more difficult

a.Dominance is harder to characterize

b.Definition of reproductive success is dependent on several factors

1.      Number of children born, number surviving to reproductive maturity, age of first contraception, time between birth, reproductive suppression, number of copulations, bond strength with males, copulatory harassment, length of reproductive fertility,

3.Primate studies

a.       Higher rank associated with

1.Younger age first conception

2.      Shorter birth intervals

3.      Reproductive suppression of others

b.      BUT, over lifetime studies these factors have been shown to be balanced by

1.      Decreased fertility

2.      Increased miscarriage possibly due to stress

C.Who is the prettiest of them all?

1.      Female dominance is directly associated with physical attractiveness

2.      Studies of middle school age girls have shown that female dominance is not based on personal competition, but on the status of the group she is in

a.       Females form cliques based on

1.      Beauty

2.      Similarity

b.      Belonging to a high status clique requires

1.      Loss of old friendsŗpressure to please current group

2.      Goal to belong but not stand out

3.      Be attractive to males, but not alienate other girls


††††††††††† D.Dominance in Menís Interpersonal style

††††††††††††††††††††††† 1.Agency: masculinity, dominance

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. individual within the group

††††††††††††††††††††††† 2.Communion: femininity, nurturance

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. merge with the group

††††††††††††††††††††††† 3. Circumplex Model of Personality (fig.#1)

††††††††††††††††††††††† 4. Bems Sex Role inventory theory

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. measuring the wrong type of data

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† b. two demensions of social behavior

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† -instrumentality

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† -expressiveness

††††††††††† E.The Cost of Dominance

††††††††††††††††††††††† 1. Bonding in females

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. dependent on food

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† b. Lemurs, Baboons, Vervets, Macaques

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† -dominance hierarchy

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† c. Chimpanzees

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - non female bonding

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† d. Bonobos

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† -socialization

††††††††††† F.Epigenesis of Sex Differences

††††††††††††††††††††††† 1.Stereotypes

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. evolution of women in the work place

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† b. misconception of women working

††††††††††††††††††††††† 2.The occurrence of gender differences

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. children between 24 months and 36 months

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† b. Identical twin boys

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† -one raised as boy, the other as a girl

††††††††††††††††††††††† 3. CAH-extra male hormones

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. the effects on males and females

††††††††††††††††††††††† 4.Lesions of the frontal lobes, and there effect on the sexes

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. also seen in rhesus monkeys

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† b. the effects these lesions have on the brain

††††††††††††††††††††††† 5. Social separation among the sexes

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. age it starts

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† b. consequences for being different

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† c. social acceptance

††††††††††† G.Growing up Competitive

††††††††††††††††††††††† 1. Behavioral sex differences

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. age, cross culturally

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† b. boys

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - aggressive

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - paying preference

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - problem solving

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - free time

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† c. girls

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - cooperative

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - close friends

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - problem solving

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - free time

††††††††††††††††††††††† 2. Social Dominance

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. importance = males

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - giving orders

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - name calling


3.      Self esteem

a.       males- hide emotions, lower status friends, no discussion of deep topics

b.      males; reputation = important

4.      Men and Friendships

a.       no close guy friends

b.      male/ female relationships

c.       little emotion to lost or failed friendships

††††††††††† H.Women and Status

††††††††††††††††††††††† 1. Women Preference

††††††††††††††††††††††† 2.Competitive nature

††††††††††††††††††††††† 3.Intimacy and equality

††††††††††††††††††††††† 4. Women as leaders

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† a. Down play abilities

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† b. co-worker bonds

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† c. female- female friendships

††††††††††† I.Why Winning is Dangerous

††††††††††††††††††††††† 1. Benefits: resources, possible fatherhood

††††††††††††††††††††††† 2. Costs:Competition, infant death, exclusion

††††††††††††††††††††††† 3. Winning females = rejection

























Dominance in Menís Interpersonal style

††††††††††† Social behavior has two dimensions agency, and communion.Agency describes dominance and masculinity, where communion describes nurturance and femininity.Anne Campbell describes agency individuals as those who are always trying to stand out from the crowd, and common individuals are those trying to blend with the crowd.The interpersonal behavior of agency and communion is further explained by the circumplex model of personality (fig. #1).In this model typical males should be toward the upper left indicating typical male traits, such as dominance and aggressiveness. The typical females are towards the lower right indicating femininity and nurturance.Through this chart psychologists begin to explore aspects of male versus female personality.The Bem Sex Role Inventory also correlates with figure 1.This inventory is made up of twenty of the most common traits identified by the opposite sex, about the opposite sex.Through Bemís research it was thought that she had identified significant sex differences that occurred naturally.In fact she uncovered two dimensions in sex differences, instrumentality and expressiveness.This fact was pointed out by a lady named Spence who was doing similar research, and she like Bem found expressiveness of sex differences and not the nature of sex differences.The way that an individual feels is not what they express, meaning a male could feel feminine traits such as nourishing, but that will not be expressed in just looking at him.

The Costs of Dominance

††††††††††† When ever the word dominance appears it usually speaks of males and their many interactions.However in this section female dominance is discussed and the inter workings of the female hierarchy is brought to life.Female dominance stems mostly from food or lack there of.In primates our closest realitives there are three types of female- female interactions. When there is an abundance of food, the type of female bonds found in Baboons, Vervets, Macaques, and lemurs is a dominance hierarchy.Where there is little food scattered over a large area there is no bonding as seen in chimpanzees.There is only one group of monkeys that are female bonded and do not have a dominance hierarchy, these are the Bonobos.

††††††††††† Unlike males dominant females remain dominant for the rest of their lives, and their dominance passes from one generation to the next.The hierarchy is set up in a linear fashion, where the matrilines are categorized A Ė F.Matril line A is the highest and each line after out ranks the line below.†† The matril lines are set up in areas where the resources are in abundance.This enables the higher ranking females to have more resources for themselves as well as their offspring.A female can choose to leave the group, but when she enters another group it will be at the bottom.A female can also challenge the dominant female but it is unlikely for her to risk her life in a quarrel.Although female dominance quarrels are mild the consequences could be great if she loses.The females in these groups have strong family bonds, this insures the survival of their genes.The rank of a female is based on her motherís rank, the daughter of an alpha female ranks higher than a beta female, and the youngest daughter ranks higher that the oldest daughter.In areas where there is little food females do not have time to form bonds and set up a dominance hierarchies.

††††††††††† Chimpanzee mothers are not female Ė female bonded, this is due to the fact that their area of habitation has little food.The females spend every waking moment foraging for food.Their survival and reproductive success depends on the amount of food they can find.The only bonds that these mothers will form are with their babies, and then only long enough for them to reach reproductive age.Although the chimpanzees are solitary in captivity female bonds do form, and they are long lasting.The second group of monkeys that becomes an exception to both groups explained above is the Bonobos.

††††††††††† The Bonobos live in an area where there is an abundance of food resources.Therefore they do not have to spend their time foraging, allowing for them to socialize more.Since these monkeys have more time for socialization bonding is mainly done through sexual encounters.Females are always sexually receptive and partake in G Ė G rubbing.This is where two receptive females facing each other will rub their genitals together creating a likeable sensation for both.†† Since the bonobos find so much pleasure in G-G rubbing they are not like typical primates and tend to copulate facing each other.

The Epigenesis of Sex Differences

††††††††††† Stereotypes play a big role in society making it hard for individuals that fall into certain categories to overcome them.Women throughout history have been coined with staying home and not working.In reality women did work even if the pay was raising a successful child or maintaining a permanent living environment, the fact that women worked was not taken into consideration.Campbell points out that even though women have evolved far enough to integrate the work place outside of the home, the typical stereotype of them still remains.The only evolutionary trait seen in the women of today, as seen by Campbell, is the fact that women are leaving their children so they are able to go to work.These sex stereotypes are obviously very strong in our society, so the question becomes are they part of are genetic make-up or are they a learned behavior that stays embedded in our minds when we are older?

††††††††††† Through studies and surveys psychologists have found that sex differences occur at an early age.Where male children showed signs of aggression and females were calm and quiet and as they get older they prefer same sex play partners.Since it is clear that females and males are different before they can learn these differences, researchers dig deeper to find when these changes occur.It has been argued that the changes occur when the child is a baby and not in the womb.An interesting settlement to this argument came in the form of identical twin boys.At seven months of age the two boys were having urinary problems, so they were taken in to be circumcised.Through an unfortunate accident one boy sustained severe damage to his penis which later fell off.The parents through psychological counseling were convinced to raise the boy as a girl, and never mention the unfortunate incident that happened.The parents believed that their decision was successful until puberty, where the girl began to have problems.The dad eventually broke down and told her the truth, and instead of being angry she was quite relieved.She went through reconstructive surgery and had a penis constructed, and then continued her life as a man.Eventually he was married and adopted two kids.This whole scenario further proves that sex differences take place in the womb where hormones alter the brain.

††††††††††† There are all sorts of hormones present during development, and too much or too little of one can alter ones personality.Overdoses of hormones can lead to a condition called CAH or Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.This condition leads to masculinizing of the individual. Their behavior is altered to show masculine traits such as increased amounts of aggression.The brain plays an important role as well in the determining gender differences.

††††††††††† The brain is very complex and as children, some concepts cannot be grasped right away.It has been suggested that males and females have lesions on their brains that enable them to grasp concepts.In one experiment children between 24 months and 36 months were presented with an object placed in front of them.The object was then covered with a cloth it did not take long for the children to lift the cloth and find the object underneath.The object was then moved in full view of the child to another location, and after a few seconds the child was allowed to look for it.The child would search for the object under the same cloth in front of them, this became known as the A not B error.The research also showed that boys were slower to finally correct the error than girls.


Growing up Competitive

††††††††††† Sex differences come about at a very early age and can be seen cross culturally.†† For boys they are more aggressive, prefer playing in large groups, resolve problems using rules, and they spend 65% of their free time playing games.Girls on the other hand are more cooperative, tend to form dyads or triads of close friends, give up on games when arguments arise, and spend only 35% of their free time playing games.

††††††††††† Social dominance also contributes to the sex differences.This trait is more important to males instead of females.In looking at speech there are five ways that male dominate.The five ways are; giving orders, name calling, threatening, refusing to obey orders, and winning arguments.

††††††††††† Self esteem in males is also very high and adds to their dominant tendencies. With high self esteem males often hide or mask their true feelings.Males will also tend to look to hang out with males that have worse attributes then their own.

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Women and status

††††††††††† In this section, Anne Campbell writes about the sex differences between men and women in regards to competition, social skills, problem solving and leadership.She focuses on the typical feminine qualities.She stresses that girls are less outwardly competitive than boys and desire to solve disagreements verbally.Females are more interested in intimacy, connecting, and equality.They want to feel a sense of belonging, not a sense of being the most powerful.

††††††††††† Females tend to downplay their intelligence and skills.They are more likely than males to lead with a democratic style, not a dictatorship.Women will also tend to sacrifice higher status for maintaining intimate friendships with other females.

Why Winning is Dangerous

††††††††††† Winning can be beneficial and costly for everyone.This section looks over the costs and benefits for males and females.Femalesí benefits are that they get resources necessary to raise their offspring.†† The cost for females is they may ruin their reputation and be excluded from their clique.Winning for females also leads to rejection by other females and companions.†† Males seem to have greater costs and benefits.A benefit for them winning is they get a chance to copulate, and sometimes with more than one female.The costs are that a deadly battle can occur and then they have no chance to copulate.

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Dominance as a male goal

††††††††††† We have learned in class that dominant male animals have greater reproductive success, meaning they have more opportunities to copulate.Male animals achieve dominance through exerting physical strength and power; human males use other means to be dominant.Human males achieve high status by incurring wealth, having positions of power, and showing knowledge and competence in skills that are culturally valued.

The author mentions that historically, men of wealth and power usually entered into polygamous relationships.They either had several wives, harems, or concubines.These powerful men were able to maintain these relationships for a couple of reasons.First, they possessed the resources to support many women.Second, because of their powerful positions, others were less likely to oppose them or harm their children.In more egalitarian societies, the social structure remains monogamous, for the sheer reason that the resources are limited.So, in this situation, the more competent males will have more reproductive success because they are able to obtain loyalty of their peers and power through their skill.These men have more opportunity for extramarital affairs and illegitimate children.

The author also discusses a recent trend that has been observed over the last century where the correlation between high status and apparent reproductive success is diminishing.A study was done of married and single men that took into account their social status and number of offspring.The researcher concluded that although the higher status males didnít sire more children, they had many more copulatory opportunities than the lower status men.The balancing effect was determined to be a combination of monogamy and use of contraception.


Why female dominance buys

††††††††††† Anne Campbell states that the benefits of female dominance differ from those of males specifically in that while males are competing for sexual access, female dominance gives a mother the advantage of allowing her existing offspring to survive.There are a couple of ways this is accomplished.Dominance can provide adequate food supply, which is important for childrenís survival because it quickens growth so the young will reach sexual maturity earlier.Food is also vital for gestation and lactation.Other advantages of dominance may include less harassment, smaller risk of stress-induced reproductive suppression, greater chance of allies, and if the dominance is inherited, the offspring will also benefit.

††††††††††† The author sites some studies associating female dominance and reproductive success.She does mention that these studies are more difficult than those of males because female dominance is less obvious and there are several more complicated factors that define reproductive success.Overall, the studies seemed to show a positive correlation between higher rank and younger first conception, quicker between birth intervals, and birth rate.Interestingly, another study examining the lifelong reproductive output showed that there were other factors that seemed to balance the status-success correlation.

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Who is the prettiest of them all?

††††††††††† In this section, the author discusses what makes female humans dominant.It all comes down to beauty.She also mentions that although competition and status exists between women, it is different from the kind men are involved in.Womenís dominance depends more on the group sheís associated with, rather than on a personal competitive level.A femaleís goal is to belong in the highest status clique she can (based on beauty and similarity with the other members), not to rise above the others, and to make herself attractive to males without alienating the other females.






Critical Review


Interesting points:


1.Females downplay skills and intelligence to move up in rank.

2.In lemurs, vervets,baboons and macaques, the younger females are more dominant than the older females.


Confusing or not-well-supported points:


1.When Anne Campbell cites some of the primate studies on female dominance and reproductive success, they seem to have inconclusive, varied results.We thought that made it difficult to pull the main points from these studies.


2.We thought that the chapter concepts and main points were not organized very well.























Figure #1





















†††††††††††††††††† Hostility†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Nurturance