Running head: PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Psychological Report For Jane Doe (#0894)

Written by:

Loyola Marymount University

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disclaimer

            The purpose of this psychological report was to allow students from an Intro to Testing class in the Psychology department at Loyola Marymount University be able to make simulated interpretations based on test scores from another student. A professional psychologist has not analyzed the information provided. This is not a clinical report assessing psychopathology and is not intended to recommend treatment of any sort. This test assessment was made for educational purposes only and thus the inferences found within this report should be viewed with skepticism.

 

Demographic Information

            Jane Doe, the student being evaluated in this report, is a twenty-two year old female from Loyola Marymount University, a medium-sized private institution in Los Angeles California. To assure anonymity, her name was not given a four-digit number (0894) was used to replace as her identification. The participant was not interviewed and did not meet with her assessor.

 

Reason for Referral

            The participant was referred by the professor of the Intro To Testing class in the Psychology department at LMU in which she was enrolled. She was required to take a series of computerized tests to fulfill a requirement of the class. The purpose this assignment was to allow students an opportunity to be part of a simulated test assessment using many of the concepts learned in class such as testing methods and procedures.

 

Tests Administered

            The following is a list of the tests taken by Jane Doe with the dates.

1. Rokeach Values Survey                                                      January 22, 2004

2. IPIP-NEO                                                                           February 29, 2004

3. Keirsey Temperament Sorter                                              March 1, 2004

4. IQ Test Lab                                                                         March 1, 2004

5. Utme.com Emotional IQ Test                                             March 1, 2004

6. Tickle.com Emotional IQ                                                    March 1, 2004

7. Strong Interest Inventory                                                   March 1, 2004

8. Transferable Skills Survey                                                  March 1, 2004

9. The Political Compass                                                         March 1, 2004

10. World’s Smallest Political Quiz                                        Unknown

11. Authentic Happiness VIA Signature Strengths Survey   March 1, 2004

12. The Multiphasic Personality Inventory                             March 1, 2004

 

Test Interpretations

 

Rokeach Values Survey

 

Purpose and Test Construction Methodology: The goal of the Rokeach Values Survey is assess the values of the test taker. The values are divided into two categories. According to the 12 Mental Measurements Yearbook (1967-1983), one group, listed as “terminal values”, are values that deal with “end-states of existence”. The other group, listed as “instrumental values”, are values associated with “modes of behavior. Jane Doe completed this survey by ranking a total of thirty-six values in order of importance from greatest to least. In addition, because this is a self-report survey, it is a deductively based test using ipsative measurement.

 

Validity and Reliability:  According to the 12 Mental Measurements Yearbook (1967-1983) and the Psychological Testing and Assessment (1996), reliability of the Rokeach Values Survey was found to be somewhat low in a test-retest reliability check test done with college students and some younger students. The best reported were for college students, where there was a reliability coefficient for terminal values between .78 and .80, and a reliability coefficient for instrumental values between .70 and .72. Reliabilities for 7th and 9th graders were .53 and .61 for instrumental values and .62 and .63 for terminal values, respectively. This survey has high face validity because it is a self-report survey, but there are problems in achieving high levels of validity because maturation and social desirability are two confound factors that can affect actual measurements.

 

Findings: Jane Doe ranked happiness, self-respect, freedom, and family security as her most important terminal values. These findings suggest Jane Doe likes a life in which she is content with herself because of her high self-esteem and is independent of others. If she does not feel happy with her life, she may see her family as means of moral and emotional support.  She does not see national security, pleasure, and a world of beauty as too important in her life. It may be that Jane Doe may not have high preference nature and the arts and does not want a life that is too leisurely. In addition, the least important values Jane Doe ranked suggest she does not feel threatened from attack, thus my not be to concerned with national security matters.

In terms of her instrumental values, Ms. Doe ranked being honest, loving, responsible, and intellectual as the most important. It may be that Jane Doe possesses these characteristics and also looks for acquaintances, and possibly a partner that also have these same values. Jane Doe does not see being imaginative, courageous, cheerful, and clean as too important, for it maybe that she does not put too much emphasis on these characteristics herself.

 

IPIP-NEO

Purpose and Test Construction Methodology:  The primary purpose of this on line inventory is to educate the public about the five-factor model of personality. More specifically, the report explains the likely consequences of one's standing on five broad personality domains. The original NEO PI-R was developed to measure five major personality factors: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness (to experience), Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Each of these major factors includes sub-domains that focus on more narrow aspects of one’s personality, in order to make up the larger domain. The IPIP-NEO is an alternate and shorter version of the NEO PI-R, which is the revised version of the original Neo Personality Inventory. This test follows a deductive theoretical approach and uses the sentence-length item format. Factor analysis was used to find the five factors of personality.

Reliability and Validity: According to the developers of this test on the website, the original NEO (NEO PI-R) provides more reliable and valid results than the shorter version (IPIP-NEO) which was taken by Jane Doe. According to the 14 Mental Measurements Yearbook (1998), the reliability coefficient for the original NEO is high, ranging between .85 and .95 at the domain level and between .56 and .90 at the facet level. Several validity check studies have found that validity of the test ranges from .50 to .70.

 

Findings: Jane Doe scored average in the Extraversion domain of the IPIP-NEO. These results indicate that Ms. Doe likes both to have quality time to herself for reflection but also likes to be around people such as friends and family and engage in conversation. In most of the sub-domains of extraversion, she scored average, but scored very low in activity level. It may be that Ms. Doe does not like to get involved into too many activities. She may prefer a more leisurely relaxed pace of life where has more control and no pressure. She may not like taking part in risky and thrill-seeking activities in order to feel content. These results are similar to her low preference in risk taking and adventure in the personal scale of the Strong Interest Inventory. Based on the other sub-domains, it may be that Jane Doe enjoys time with others because of her friendliness and because she emits positive emotions towards others. This is what may draw her towards being with others as well as other people seeking her. In her self-rating, Ms. Doe rated herself accurately as average in overall extraversion.

             Ms. Doe scored high in the Agreeableness domain of the IPIP-NEO. This suggests that Jane is very concerned with the needs and well-being of others. Jane seems to be inclined in helping others when she can and doing favors without hesitation. In addition, the results indicate Jane is cooperative, which is a necessary characteristic when working with others. Her high score in the sub-domains of altruism and cooperation parallel her top strength of citizenship, teamwork, and loyalty in the Authentic Happiness VIA Signature Strengths Survey. These traits suggest Jane Doe likes to cooperate with others in order to avoid conflict, a helpful characteristic in the competitive group work environment. However, having such a high level of cooperation may be negative, for at times, Ms. Doe may compromise her own needs in order to please others. Jane Doe scored herself as average in the Agreeableness domain, though she scored high according to the IPIP-NEO. She may have underestimated herself in this test, even though all other tests reflect that same characteristics.

             Jane Doe scored average in the Conscientious domain of the IPIP-NEO. This suggests that Ms. Doe is usually in self-control making, but there are times when she may get off track because of distractions. This finding mirrors her low scores in Orderliness and Achievement-striving, suggesting Ms. Doe may not like to follow routine or schedules and is somewhat disorganized. In addition, the findings suggest Jane may be content with minimal amount of work. This result contradicts her top strength in the Authentic Happiness VIA Signature Strengths Survey, where she was indicated to be the type of person who puts effort into her work. She also scored average on cautiousness, indicating she is not always impulsive in making decisions, but also thinks them through. Jane scored herself high in the Conscientiousness domain, turned out to be average in according to the IPIP-NEO.

             In the Openness to experience domain, Jane Doe scored fairly low, indicating that Jane Doe seems like a practical down-to-earth person who may prefer to not to think about things to complexly. Her low score suggests Ms. Doe does not like to get herself involved in risky behaviors or activities, similar to the score she received in her personal style scale of risk tasking and adventure. It may be that Jane does not appear to be open change, but would rather be in situations she is used to or is familiar with. She may prefer novelty to unplanned activity. Her low emotionality score reflects her Utme.com Emotional IQ, suggesting she tends not to let emotions affect her decisions. Like in the Rokeach Values Survey, Ms. Doe has an average liking of artistic interests. Interestingly, Jane self-rated herself high on openness whereas the IPIP-NEO rated her as low.

             The following is a table indicating Ms. Doe self-assessment on the IPIP-NEO domains as well as where she felt her would want her ideal self to be and her actual self according to IPIP-NEO.  

 

 

Trait

IPIP-NEO

Self Assessment

Ideal Self

Openness

Low

High

High

Conscientiousness

Average

High

High

Extroversion

Average

Average

High

Agreeableness

High

Average

Average

 

            

             On the Openness facet of the IPIP-NEO, Ms. Doe was rated as low, falling in the 16-66%ile. This score suggests that she is conventional, down-to-earth person, with narrow interests and unanalytical. These results contradict what Ms. Doe rated herself and what she wanted her ideal self to be. She felt she was high on openness suggesting she saw herself as curious, creative, original, and with broad interests. These contradictory findings may suggest there was some error in calculating where she falls in this facet.

            On the Conscientiousness facet, Ms. Doe was rated as average, falling in the 36-66%ile. This suggests she is usually organized, reliable, self-disciplined, and hard working. However, there may be times where she may not get off track. Ms. Doe rated herself high on conscientiousness and saw as her ideal self as being the same way.

            On the Extroversion facet, Ms. Doe rated herself as average falling the 36-66%ile, which turned out to be the same on IPIP-NEO. This suggests that she is sociable and likes to be around others, but at the same time appreciates some quality time to herself. However, Ms. Doe indicates she would like to be high on extroversion, suggesting that she would like to see herself as more extroverted.

            Finally, on the Agreeableness facet of the IPIP-NEO, Ms. Doe was rated as high, falling in the 67-85%ile. This suggests she good-natured, trusting, forgiving, and helpful. She did not rank herself as high or saw her ideal self as high in this facet, but rather saw herself as merely being average.

 

Keirsey Temperament Sorter

 

Purpose and Test Construction Methodology:  Temperament is a predisposition to certain behaviors and attitudes. The Keirsey Temperament Sorter, a test similar to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, was designed to assess a person’s temperament based on his/her tendencies, preferences, and motivations. A person taking this test can be classified as one of four temperaments: Artisans, Guardians, Idealists, or Rationals. Each of these temperaments are associated with certain personality types, such as extroversion, introversion, sensation, intuition, thinking, feeling, judgment, and perception. This follows an empirical-based approach (since is similar to the Myers-Briggs Indicator). It is likely that factor analysis was used to identify the scales for the test.

 

Reliability and Validity: The Keirsey Sorter is an internet-based test so no validity and reliability information could be found. Thus, the interpretations of this test should be viewed with caution and skepticism.

 

Findings: From this test, Jane Doe was found to have the temperament of a Guardian, with the personality traits of sensation and judgment. This finding suggest Jane Doe is geared toward helping and serving others and has skills in a managing goods and services. It is likely that she likes novelty and cooperating with others is order to keep things balanced and in order. It may be that Jane Doe does not like radical change or spontaneous activity but rather routine, but is open to change once in a while. These results are similar to the IPIP-Neo Facet of Openness, where Jane Doe also scored low in the adventurousness sub-domain In addition, these results suggest Jane Doe is dependable and trustworthy, for she may be willing at times to take on tasks others will not. 

UTNE.com Emotional IQ Test

 

Purpose and Test Construction Methodology:  The purpose of this test is to assess using an IQ score, how well the participant handles daily-interactions and conflicts in their life. Emotional IQ is based the way a person communicates, handles situations, gets along with others, and the ability to read one’s own and others feelings and needs. This is a deductive-intuitive based test that is objective and uses the multiple-choice format.

 

Reliability and Validity:  This test has unknown validity and reliability. Thus, the interpretations of this test should be viewed with caution and skepticism.

 

Findings: Jane Doe obtained an Emotional IQ Score of 80. This result suggests is below average in emotional IQ. It may be that Jane Doe may not her emotional life affect her in making any decisions and manages it in a way that does not make her stressed or depressed. She may not be able to read people’s emotions accurately with them having to tell her first. This suggests that Jane Doe is likely to make decisions with her head and not with her heart. These findings are similar to Jane Doe’s IPIP-NEO low score in emotionality in the Openness domain.

 

Tickle.com Emotional IQ

 

Purpose and Test Construction Methodology:  Just like the Utme.com Emotional IQ test, the purpose of this test is assess using an IQ score how emotionally smart someone is. According to the developers of this test, the emotional IQ is “an indicator of success” because those with higher emotional intelligence scores, not with high IQ scores, tend to be the most value and productive employees and have the longest and happiest relationships. Test construction and methodology is unknown but is most likely a deductive-intuitive based test.

 

Reliability and Validity:  This test has unknown validity and reliability. Thus, the interpretations of this test should be viewed with caution and skepticism.

 

Findings:  Jane Doe obtained an Emotional IQ of 124. According to these results, Jane Doe’s strongest suit is empathy. She appears to have the ability to see things from someone else’s point of view. This suggests that Jane Doe is sensitive to other’s people’s feelings and concerns. The results of this test contradict the results found by the Tickle.com Emotional IQ test previously discussed her low Emotional IQ there suggested she may not be able to read other people’s emotions well. This gives evidence of these tests’ low validity and reliability.

 

Strong Interest Inventory (SII)

 

Purpose and Test Construction Methodology:  The goal of the Strong Interest Inventory is to aid individuals in identifying his or her basic interests and activities and linking them to careers that are based on those interests. Organizing interests in categories called the General Occupational Themes (Social, Conventional, Enterprising, Artistic, Investigative, Realistic) and other sub categories allows individuals to explore their career options for the future that they have and have not considered. This test is an empirical based test that uses criterion-keying method (contrast-groups method) and uses mostly non-ipsative items, but few ipsative items.

 

Reliability and Validity:  According to the 15 Mental Measurements Yearbook (1927-1994), reliability for the SII is high. Short-term test-retest reliabilities for the General Occupational Themes ranged from a low of .74 to a high .92. Validity data shows that the Strong is a psychometrically sound inventory. According to the Psychological Testing and Assessment (1996), concurrent and predictive validity evidence for the accuracy of the strong in predicting the choice of college majors and careers is also strong (“correct classification” rate of 70%).

 

Findings:  The results from the Strong Interest Inventory indicate that Ms. Doe’s three top occupational themes are Social, Conventional, and Enterprising.  Jane has interest in helping and instructing others, doing some type of work in accounting and processing data, and selling and managing. Her interest in managing parallels her results in her transferable skills survey, were she had an average score. Her basic interest scale indicates she has a very high interest in medical service in which she may help people. This result echoed what the Keirsey Temperament Sorter suggested about Jane Doe’s temperament in servicing others and her high score in altruism in the Agreeableness facet of the IPIP-NEO. In terms of the occupational scales, Jane Doe had similar interests to the following jobs where people were satisfied: radiologic technologist, audiologist, registered nurse, and speech pathologist. All these occupations involve helping others and are occupations Jane Doe may consider for the future. Results also suggest Jane had little interest in occupations that require building, repairing, and working outdoors and average interest in researching, analyzing, and inquiring, similar to results in the Transfer Skills Survey. Jane Doe’s interest in the artistic occupation scale is low, which mirrors her ranking of a world beauty as least important in the Rokeach Values Survey.

            According to Jane Doe’s Personal Style Scales, her work style is geared to toward working with people. It may be that Ms. Doe like work setting where she can be part of a team or with one other person where she can contribute and also help others. These results parallel her highest strength in the Authentic Happiness VIA Signature Strengths Survey, where citizenship, teamwork, and loyalty were three characteristics the survey indicated she possessed. Jane Doe’s leadership style suggests she may prefer more occupations were she is instructed and directed, rather than she taking charge of a particular task. Because of these findings, Jane may not be compatible in teaching profession. These results also echo her average score in assertiveness in the Extraversion facet of IPIP-NEO. In regards to risk-taking and adventure, Jane Doe’s score suggests she does not prefer doing risky tasks but rather quiet activities. It may be Jane Doe can perform better without pressure and in quiet settings, where she has more control of the situation. These results are similar to the low scores Ms. Doe received on excitement seeking in the Extraversion facet and on adventurousness in the Openness facet of the IPIP-NEO. Finally, Jane Doe highly prefers and seems to work better in a practical working environment where she receives short-term training so she can start on a job and get it done. It may be Ms. Doe is not willing to spend many years in school, but rather work in order to gain the experience that she wants.

Transferable Skills Survey

 

Purpose and Test Construction Methodology: The purpose of the transfer skills test is assess an individuals self-ratings on skills and abilities that can be applied to the professional-work environment. The categories measured were: Communication, Research and Planning, Human Relations, Organization, Management, and Leadership, and Work Survival. This test is most likely deductive based and uses absolute measurement.

 

Reliability and Validity:  This test has unknown validity and reliability. However, poor validity and reliability can be assumed from the test construction because of the spelling errors and because it is Internet-based. Thus, the interpretations of this test should be viewed with caution and skepticism.

 

Findings: According to the percentile scores given, Jane Doe scored high on communications skills (76%) which indicates Jane appears to able to communicate with others and can establish relationships with others. Jane Doe, however, scored average on researching and planning (58%) which may indicate that she is not very fond of researching and planning activities herself, a result also found in Strong Interest Inventory, where she indicate she had little interest in the investigative occupation. Ms. Doe scored fairly high on the human relations section (84%), which suggests that she likes to cooperate with others and can work well with others. These findings echo her high score in cooperation in the Agreeableness facet of IPIP-NEO. Jane Doe scored average in the organization, management, and leadership area (52%) that indicates she may not like to manage activities herself, but rather be directed and instructed towards what should be done. Organizing activities or even keeping activities and other things in order may not be a strong inclination for Ms. Doe. This score in leadership mirrors her score in leadership style on the Strong Interest Inventory and in assertiveness in the Extraversion facet of the IPIP-NEO.

 

The Political Compass

 

Purpose and Test Construction Methodology: The objective of this test is to assess where a person stands in the political arena by being classified liberal, conservative, authoritative, or libertarian. The tests separates the social scale and economic scale into two dimensions: authoritative and libertarian for the social and left (liberal) and right (conservative) for the economic. This test compares other famous political figures’ standings, which indicates it may be an empirical based test that uses the criterion-keying method (contrast-groups method). It also uses the Likert-scale, an absolute measurement.

 

Reliability and Validity:  This test has unknown validity and reliability. Thus, the interpretations of this test should be viewed with caution and skepticism.

 

Findings:  The results from this test indicate that Ms. Doe is more inclined toward the Libertarian/Conservative political arena. This suggests that Jane Doe feels the individual is important meaning that the State should not have control over the people and that in order for society to flourish, it must be cooperative. The famous political leader Ms. Doe closely associates to is Nelson Mandela.

 

World’s Smallest Political Quiz

 

Purpose and Test Construction Methodology: The purpose of this test is to assess an individual’s political standing based on a few questions. Similar to the categories on the Political Compass discussed earlier, this test also added the centrist dimension for those that are not inclined towards any political position. No information was provided on the test construction methodology.

 

Reliability and Validity:  This test has unknown validity and reliability. Thus, the interpretations of this test should be viewed with caution and skepticism.

 

Findings: The results from this test indicate that Jane Doe is left-liberal. This suggests that Ms. Doe prefers self-government (90%) in personal matters and central decision-making on economics. It may be that she wants a government that serves the disadvantaged to be fair. She may also tolerate social diversity but will work for economic equality. 

 

Authentic Happiness VIA Signature Strengths Survey

 

Purpose and Test Construction Methodology:  The purpose of the Signature Strengths Survey is to identify the test taker’s strengths that contribute to overall happiness. A total of twenty-four strengths are assessed, but only the top five are revealed in descending order. The results are compared to other groups (i.e. web site users, female respondents, occupation group, etc.), which suggests this is an empirical based test that uses the criterion-keying method (contrasted-groups method).

 

Reliability and Validity:  This test has unknown validity and reliability. Thus, the interpretations of this test should be viewed with caution and skepticism.

 

Findings:  According to the results, Jane Doe’s highest strength is citizenship, teamwork, and loyalty. This suggests Ms. Doe works well in groups and puts in effort to complete a project. As the results suggest, she is a loyal and dedicated teammate who does what she can in order for her group to succeed. This results echo Jane Doe’s high score in human relations in the Transfer Skills Survey. Ms. Doe’s second strength is kindness and generosity, which suggests she is willing to serve and help others and enjoys doing others favors. These results are similar to her score in the altruism in the Agreeableness facet of the IPIP-NEO. Ms. Doe’s next strength is honesty, authenticity, and genuineness. It may be that she is a down-to-earth person, who is honest and is genuine and authentic in telling the truth. Jane Doe’s fourth strength is capacity to love and be loved, which suggest she values intimate relationships. This is similar to her ranking of family security as important in the Rokeach Value Survey. Jane Doe’s family most likely is the group she values and gives and receives love from. Her final strength is caution, prudence, and discretion, suggesting she is a careful person who thinks things through before she does them. This finding is similar to the score Jane Doe received on cautiousness in the Conscientiousness facet of the IPIP-NEO.

 

The Multiphasic Personality Inventory

 

Purpose and Test Construction Methodology:  The purpose of this test is to assess the test-taker on ten personality traits, much like the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.

 

Reliability and Validity:  This test has unknown validity and reliability. Thus, the interpretations of this test should be viewed with caution and skepticism.

 

Findings:  The results for this test indicate she is least like others in the area of gender identity. Jane Doe’s score is 6% consistent with a normal personality profile. No other information is provided so interpretations for this test will be vague.

 

Overall Findings

            The evaluator of these test scores has never met or interviewed Jane Doe. All the inferences made before in this report and as well as the following analysis are made on the basis of the scores resulting from the tests Ms. Doe completed for her Psychology class. After analyzing the scores from all these tests, we can yield an overall personality profile for Jane Doe. Some characteristics that may describe Jane Doe are warm, generous, kind, understanding, and nurturing. Ms. Doe seems to be inclined towards activities or situations that are low in thrill seeking. Her scores in Openness to Experience in the IPIP-NEO and in the risk-taking adventure personal scale all suggest that her may prefer quiet activities such reading. This may be because noisy setting may be too distracting for her, either not letting her focus and concentrate on what she is doing. She also seems to prefer novelty and familiarity, and her Guardian temperament influences her preference for stability.

 

Personal Strengths

 

The most notable and re-occurring characteristic of Ms. Doe yielded by the scores of these tests was helping others. Ms. Doe seems to be concerned about the needs of others and seems willing to always give a helping hand. She may go out of her way to help others and even make others happy. Cooperation with others is a something she may like in order to avoid conflict and to have pleasant and stress-free relationships. Ms. Doe’s strengths reflected in the Authentic Happiness VIA Signature Strengths Survey of citizenship, loyalty, generosity, kindness, and honesty all suggest that she has an overall pleasant personality where all her strengths are revealed.

 

Educational/Career Implications

 

The findings from Ms. Doe’s tests provide some insight on how Ms. Doe may behave and act in an educational or career setting.  Ms. Doe seems to dislike conflict because she may not able to handle it well. This characteristic is necessary to have in situations or professions that deal with interaction with other people. This may direct Ms. Doe to a career in a social field (perhaps medical or health care) that involves interaction with others. This finding suggests that Ms. Doe mostly likely works well in groups where she can give a contribution. However, Ms. Doe’s communication skills, as indicated by the Transferable Skills Survey, are somewhat average which is necessary to have in situations dealing with people. Ms. Doe may like doing activities one at a time in order to do them right, instead of being under pressure from doing too many activities at once. In addition, when involved in activities or projects, she prefers to put under another’s direction. She may not be too inclined in directing or instruction others, as shown by several of her test scores, suggesting she may prefer to lead by example.

 

Relationship Implications

 

In terms of relationships, tied in with her caring ability, Ms. Doe’s friendliness and loving character allows her to emit positive emotions towards others which may make her able to make friends easily and have people attracted to her. Since one of her strengths is the capacity to love and be loved according the Authentic Happiness VIA Signature Strengths Survey, this suggests she greatly values intimate relationships, not only with family but also with significant others. She may be inclined to be in close relationships with others because of the love and security that they provide. 

However, her social skills (as indicated by her Emotional IQ scores) suggest she may not be able to read people’s body language or emotions well. This may cause problems in her relationship with her partner because she may misinterpret certain body language from her partner the wrong way. In addition as mentioned before, Ms. Doe may be more willing to compromise with others suggesting that she may not rank her needs in a relationship as important, but will be more inclined in keeping her partner happy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Costa, P.T. & McCrae, R.R. (1998). 14 Mental Measurements Yearbook. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press Inc.

 

Cohen, R.J., Swerdlik, M.E., & Phillips, S. M. (1996). Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Tests and Measurement.  Mountainview: Mayfield Publishing Company.

 

Mclntire, S.A., & Miller, L.A. (2000). Foundations of Psychological Testing. Boston:

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

 

Rokeach, M. (1967-1983). 12 Mental Measurements Yearbook. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press Inc.

 

Strong, E.K., Campbell, D.P. Harmon, L.W., Hansen, J.I., Borgen, F.H., & Hammer, A.L.  (1927-1994). 15 Mental Measurements Yearbook. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press Inc.